Surgical Risks and Complications


Scarring is a natural outcome of healing after surgery. Factors like skin type, genetics, and the incision’s location affect scar appearance and severity. Some may develop more severe scars, such as hypertrophic or keloid scars. For concerning scarring, consult your surgeon for possible treatments.


A common surgical risk, infection can occur at the site of surgery. Symptoms include redness, pain, pus, and non-healing wounds. Surgeons take stringent sterility measures, but patient adherence to post-operative care is crucial. Timely detection and antibiotics are essential for managing infections.


Post-surgical pain varies in intensity and duration, depending on the procedure and individual pain tolerance. Normal discomfort is expected, but severe or long-lasting pain may signal a complication. Pain management strategies include prescribed medication and rest.


Post-surgical bleeding can be external or internal (hematoma), presenting as visible bleeding, pain, pressure, or swelling. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any unusual bleeding or swelling after surgery.


This refers to the build-up of lymph fluid under the skin post-surgery, often due to lymphatic vessel damage. Symptoms include pain, pressure, or fluid drainage. While generally minor, seromas may need drainage or other treatments.

Anesthetic Complications

Anesthesia risks include allergic reactions, intubation-related trauma, malignant hyperthermia, and issues with blood pressure or respiration. Continuous monitoring during surgery helps manage these risks.

Undesirable Cosmetic Outcomes

Plastic surgery may sometimes result in unsatisfactory cosmetic results like asymmetry, skin puckering, or misaligned patient expectations. Setting realistic expectations and discussing potential outcomes are crucial. Revision surgery is a possible but not guaranteed solution.

Nerve Damage

Nerve damage during surgery is rare but can occur, leading to numbness, tingling, or sensation loss. Usually, nerve function improves over time, but permanent damage is a possibility. Report any unusual sensations after surgery.

Bruising and Swelling

Bruising and swelling are typical after surgery but should be monitored. Excessive or prolonged symptoms require attention. Following post-operative care, such as elevation and cold compresses, is recommended. Contact your medical team for persistent swelling or bruising.


While exceedingly rare, every surgical procedure includes a minimal risk of death, potentially due to complications, anesthesia reactions, or underlying conditions. Surgeons use comprehensive pre-operative assessments and modern protocols to minimize this risk. Patients should openly discuss their medical history and adhere to all guidelines.